John is an AECOM Fellow specialised in geotechnical engineering for more than 40 years and has been practising in the Asia Pacific region. John has continued to work on underground railway projects and contributed to the design of more than 100 underground station structures.
The underground complex spans over 300,000 square meters and is home to a wide range of facilities, including shopping centers, restaurants, hockey rink and even a swimming pool. It is also connected to the Helsinki Metro, which makes it an important transportation hub for the city.
One of the most interesting features of the Helsinki underground city is its use of modern technology to improve energy efficiency and sustainability. It uses a geothermal heating system, which reduces its energy consumption and helps to lower carbon emissions.
The Naples underground city, also known as Napoli Sotterranea, is an intricate network of tunnels and passageways that covers more than 80 kilometers beneath the streets of Naples, Italy. This underground complex spans over 2400 years of history and is considered one of the most important underground archaeological sites in the world.
Visitors to Napoli Sotterranea can explore its vast network of tunnels and chambers, which includes everything from ancient Greek quarries to World War II bomb shelters. The underground city also features a number of archaeological artifacts, including ancient statues, mosaics, and frescoes.
One of the most unique features of the Naples Underground City is the Catacombs of San Gennaro, which are a series of underground tombs that date back to the early Christian period. The catacombs contain thousands of burial chambers and are considered one of the most important early Christian burial sites in the world.
Derinkuyu is a fascinating historical site located in Cappadocia, Turkey. It is one of the largest and deepest underground cities in the region and was built in the 8th century BC by the Hittites and developed further by the Phrygians. The city was later expanded by the Byzantines and the Christians in the 7th and 8th centuries AD.
According to BBC, the ancient city Derinkuyu consists of a complex network of tunnels and rooms that are spread over 18 levels, reaching a depth of up to 85 meters. The city was designed to provide shelter and protection to the local inhabitants during times of war and persecution. One of the most impressive features of the Derinkuyu is its ability to support a large population for an extended period of time. The city was also used as a storage area for food and supplies during long periods of siege. The city is equipped with a sophisticated water supply system that includes underground channels and wells, as well as a network of stone doors that could be closed to seal off different sections of the city.
Visitors can explore the underground tunnels and chambers, marveling at the engineering and architecture of the ancient city. The city features a number of fascinating architectural and engineering wonders, including underground wells, ventilation shafts, and even a church with a large cross carved into the stone ceiling.