Postfix Qshape [VERIFIED] Download
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How to Download and Use Postfix Qshape to Analyze Queue Congestion
Postfix is a popular open source mail transfer agent (MTA) that can handle high volumes of email traffic. However, sometimes Postfix may experience queue congestion, which means that mail is draining slowly or the queue is unexpectedly large. This can affect the performance and reliability of your mail system.
Fortunately, Postfix comes with a handy tool called qshape that can help you diagnose and troubleshoot queue congestion problems. Qshape is a program that displays a tabular view of the Postfix queue contents, showing the message distribution by age and by sender or recipient domain. This can help you identify the sources of congestion and take appropriate actions to resolve them.
In this article, we will show you how to download and use Postfix qshape to analyze queue congestion. We will also explain the meaning of the qshape output and how to interpret it.
How to Download Postfix Qshape
Qshape is bundled with Postfix 2.1 and later source code, under the "auxiliary" directory. You can download Postfix source code from the official website[^3^] or from one of the mirror sites[^3^]. Alternatively, you can use your package manager to install Postfix and qshape on your system.
For example, on Debian or Ubuntu, you can run:
sudo apt-get install postfix postfix-qshape
On CentOS or Fedora, you can run:
sudo yum install postfix postfix-perl-scripts
On MacOS, you can use Homebrew to install Postfix:
brew install postfix
Once you have installed Postfix and qshape, you can run qshape as the superuser (root) or as the mail_owner specified in main.cf (typically postfix). You need to have read access to the queue directories and queue files.
How to Use Postfix Qshape
The basic syntax of qshape is:
qshape [options] [queue_name ...]
You can specify one or more queue names to display their contents. The possible queue names are: maildrop, hold, incoming, active, and deferred. If no queue name is given, qshape shows statistics for the union of both the incoming and active queues, which are the most relevant queues to look at when analyzing performance.
You can also use various options to customize the output of qshape. Some of the most useful options are:
-s: Display the sender domain distribution instead of the recipient domain distribution. By default, qshape shows the recipient distribution.
-p: Generate aggregate statistics for parent domains. Top level domains are not shown, nor are domains with fewer than min_subdomains subdomains. The names of parent domains are shown with a leading dot (e.g. .example.com).
-m min_subdomains: When used with the -p option, sets the minimum subdomain count needed to show a separate line for a parent domain. The default is 5.
-b bucket_count: The age distribution is broken up into a sequence of geometrically increasing intervals or "buckets". This option sets the number of intervals or "buckets". Each bucket has a maximum queue age that is twice as large as that of the previous bucket. The last bucket has no age limit.
-t bucket_time: The age limit in minutes for the first time bucket. The default value is 5, meaning that the first bucket counts messages between 0 and 5 minutes old.
-l: Instead of using a geometric age sequence, use a linear age sequence, in other words simple multiples of bucket_time. This feature is available in Postfix 2.2 and later.
-w terminal_width: The output is right justified, with the counts for the last bucket shown on the 80th column. The terminal_width can be adjusted for wider screens allowing more buckets to be displayed without truncating the domain names on the left.
-N batch_msg_count: When the output device is a terminal, intermediate results are shown each "batch_msg_count" messages. This produces usable results in a reasonable a474f39169